Many hair removal treatments engage various technologies for executing the treatment procedures. Using a diode laser device among the hair removal treatments is one of the effective treatment procedures till date. The aim of using a diode laser is intended at exposing the hair follicle to a concentrated laser beam. Essentially, a diode laser (LD) is a semiconductor device that contains a laser medium formed by a p-n Junction. Laser therapy has been found to be effective in treatment of dermatological conditions such as dilated blood vessels, excessive hair growth and scars on the skin.
Diode laser therapy
The human skin consists of chromophores (melanin, haemoglobin and water), that gives colour to the skin. And, melanin is of two types – eumelanin (gives hair a brown) and, pheomelanin (gives hair, a red or blonde colour). When the laser diode emits the laser beam on application of voltage on the p-n junction, a spectrum of inversion electrons is produced. Once the semiconductor region begins the emission of the laser beam, the photons that are emitted are reflected back, giving rise to more electron hole pairs. The beam concentrates into a thin pencil beam with a heavy concentration of photons. Following which, the particular wavelengths of the intensified laser beam hits the target chromophore on the skin. The chromophore absorbs the specific wavelength and, heat is generated. This heat destroys the targeted chromophore. In case of hair removal procedures, the chromophore that is targeted, is melanin. Treatments involving Diode lasers have shown effective results on people with light skin and dark hair.
Diode lasers are used in the following treatment procedures.
Excessive Hair removal.
Removal of hair from private areas of the body that often include waxing and shaving, can get quite painful through the process. Diode lasers are an effective alternate treatment. However, multiple rounds of laser treatment are needed to mitigate the growth of the hair. In each cycle, the hair follicles that are targeted may be in different phases of activation. Therefore, about 4 to 6 rounds of laser treatment using diode lasers is required to reduce the hair growth to a minimum. Diode lasers found in the long pulse diode and Nd:YAG lasers are used extensively in laser treatment for hair removal procedures. Nd:YAG has been effective in stalling the growth of facial hair by almost 50 percent. Patients opting for hair removal procedures using diode lasers are requested to avoid waxing, shaving and tanning, weeks prior to the scheduled date of treatment. They are also advised against application of make up in the stipulated time window.
Treating vascular lesions.
Telangiectasias is a dermatological condition wherein, women who sport a light complexioned skin suffer from dilated blood vessels beneath the skin. For treatment of Telangiectasias, the laser beam from the diode laser penetrates the target blood vessel, as the blood is re-directed to flow through the surrounding veins. One round of treatment that employs diode lasers for treatment of vascular lesions, takes about 40 minutes to an hour.
Removal of scars and tattoos.
Tattoos are made on the skin under guidance and experience of well-trained tattoo artists. While making a tattoo, the ink is injected into the skin through needles and, it is absorbed by the skin. However, tattoo removal is relatively tougher than getting one. Diode lasers are used in removal of tattoos and scars. However, the success of the treatment depends on the colours used in the tattoo. The efficacy of the treatment depends on the colour that is capable of absorbing all wavelength of the laser beam emitted by the semiconductor junction. The easiest colour to remove from the skin is black, followed by red and blue. Green, however is difficult to remove from the tattoo, using diode lasers. The popular diode laser used in tattoo removal procedures is the Q switched Nd: YAG laser which aids in easier removal of tattoos with less risk as opposed to other diode lasers such as Q switched ruby and Q switched alexandrite. The laser beam is aimed at targeting the colour pigments in the tattoo. Later, it breaks down the pigment post which, the body excretes it. The entire tattoo removal procedure could take about 10 to 12 rounds of treatment.
Besides removal of tattoos, diode lasers are effective in treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids.
Treatment of Pigmented Lesions
Melanin is the core reason for the pigmentation in the skin. Darker complexion indicates more melanin in the skin. Dermatological disorders such as melasma (brown patches in skin due to imbalance in melanin), lentigines and hyper pigmentation are caused by an imbalance in the content of melanin, given its reactive nature. Q switched ruby, doubled Q switch Nd:YAG lasers and Q switched alexandrite are best suited therapies using diode lasers, for people with dark skin colour. About three to four rounds of treatment are carried out for better results.
Using diode lasers for treatment of facial scars and, removal of excess hair growth in sensitive areas of the body, has been found effective in the world of cosmetic surgery. Yet, one must consult his or her doctor before opting for laser treatment. The doctor will list out the contingencies in the treatment such as, skin discolouration, scarring and side effects of the medications post the treatment. Acclaimed doctors like Dr. Debraj Shome are experienced in surgeries involving the cosmetic aspects associated with dermatological disorders.