The world “plastic” is derived from Greek language which means “to form” or “to mold”. Therefore, plastic surgery literally means surgery done to reconstruct or reform some part of the body.
Cosmetic Oculoplastic surgery is surgery pertaining to the cosmetic procedures on the structures surrounding the eyes. Cosmetic Oculoplastic surgery is also known as Ophthalmic Plastic surgery and Ocular facial surgery as well. It is sub specialty of specialty and it involves the reconstruction of the facial tissues and periorbital structure of the eyes including cheeks, eyelids, eyebrows, tear duct system etc.
The orbit is defined as the socket shaped structure that houses the eye and other structures that aid the function of the eyes such as blood vessels, nerves and the eye muscles. The eyes are surrounded by a layer of fat tissues that provide the cushioning effect and therefore protect the eyes. Various problems like inflammation, infection etc can affect the eyes. The eyes can develop tumors also but fortunately most orbital tumors are benign in nature. The tumor may grow around the eyeballs and eventually invade the orbit from the sinuses.
Cosmetic Oculoplastic surgery is done to reconstruct the orbital area but such surgery can affect the eyes. Therefore only specialized oculo-facial surgeons should perform such surgery.
Types of surgeries cosmetic Oculoplastic surgeons do:-
There are three types of surgeries which are performed by the surgeons under this specialty.
- Orbital surgery– the orbital surgery involves the reconstruction of the orbital area which is done following a facial trauma. The orbital surgery is also done in the case of Grave’s disease. Orbital surgery also involves evaluation and repair of fractures. The evaluation and management of orbital tumors also comes under orbital surgical procedures.
- Facial Oculoplastic surgery– facial surgery may involve facial and cheek lifts. Brow lift is also done in conjunction with surgery of drooping upper eyelids. The brow lift can be of direct type, endoscopic type or the indirect type. Skin resurfacing is also done using chemical peels, Erbium lasers and CO2 also. Botox injections are also given to enhance the facial structures pertaining to the eyes.
- Eyelid surgery– the surgery of the eyelids is done to correct the problems such as droopiness, malposition etc. the eyelid surgery includes surgery of upper eyelids which is known as blepharoplasty. It is the procedure which involves removal of excess muscle and fat to cure the droopiness of the eyes. With ageing, extra fat gathers above as well as below the eyes. All the sagging skin not only makes a person look older but also blocks the side vision. Blepharoplasty is done to cure baggy or droopy eyelids, droopy lower eyelids, bags under the eyes and excess skin on the lower eyelids.
The surgery of eyelids can be done to improve the appearance of the lids and also to improve the elasticity of the eyelids.
Eyelids are integral for the protection and health of the eyes. The most common problems associated with eyelids occur due to loosening of skin due to ageing. With increasing age, the skin becomes thin and becomes saggy and eventually loses the volume because of decreased percentage of fat in the skin. The treatment of the lower eyelids is not only done for protecting the eye, but also for achieving a more youthful appearance.The surgery of the upper eyelid is done in continuity with the eyebrows and the surgery of the lower eyelids is done along with the cheeks.
Cosmetic surgery is done post the treatment of basal cell carcinoma which occurs on the eyelids.
The shape and contours of the eyelids and the surrounding structures can change with age. Cosmetic surgery can give an enhanced and younger looking appearance to a person by removing the excess skin and the fat. The excess skin can make a person look tired or can obstruct the vision in the upper segment.
The brow lift procedure redefines the position of the eyebrows. But the treatment is different for males and females. Men have a different shape of the brows that arch minimally whereas females have a more well-defined arch to their brows. In many cases brow lifts are done along with the surgery for drooping upper eyelids. The advantage of combining the two procedures i.e. brow lift and blepharoplasty is that the brows can be repositioned to appear more natural looking and therefore the amount of loose skin to be removed is also reduced. The cosmetic surgery of droopy lids or Ptosis is done when the condition is apparent but does not cause any problems with the vision. The surgery is done to life the eyelids by increasing their height. The surgery also creates symmetry between the two sides.
The recovery from the surgery is quite quick. The surgery is mostly done under local anesthesia and many procedures are outpatient procedure which means the patients can go back from the hospital on the same day.
Cosmetic Oculoplastic surgery, like other surgeries carries some risks. In rare cases, a patient might experience infection or inflammation at the site of the surgery. It is important to carefully follow the instructions of the doctor post the surgery.
Plastic Surgeons like Dr. Debraj Shome are specially trained via fellowships in cosmetic oculoplastic surgery and therefore the results of these surgeries are the best in their hands.